Philosophical Investigations

Philosophical Investigations

Ludwig Wittgenstein G.E.M. Anscombe / Nov 26, 2020


  • Title: Philosophical Investigations
  • Author: Ludwig Wittgenstein G.E.M. Anscombe
  • ISBN: 9780631231271
  • Page: 179
  • Format: Hardcover

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    About "Ludwig Wittgenstein G.E.M. Anscombe"

      • Ludwig Wittgenstein G.E.M. Anscombe

        Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein 26 April 1889 29 April 1951 was an Austrian British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.Described by Bertrand Russell as the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating , he helped inspire two of the twentieth century s principal philosophical movements the Vienna Circle and Oxford ordinary language philosophy According to an end of the century poll, professional philosophers in Canada and the U.S rank both his Tractatus Logico Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations among the top five most important books in twentieth century philosophy, the latter standing out as e one crossover masterpiece in twentieth century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations Wittgenstein s influence has been felt in nearly every field of the humanities and social sciences, yet there are widely diverging interpretations of his thought.


    1. If you read first Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, and then follow it with his Philosophical Investigations, you will treat yourself to perhaps the most fascinating intellectual development in the history of philosophy. Wittgenstein has the distinct merit of producing, not one, but two enormously influential systems of philosophy—systems, moreover, that are at loggerheads with one another. In fact, I wouldn’t recommend attempting to tackle this work without first reading the Tractatus, as the Inv [...]

    2. An offline discussion with Simon Evnine prompted me to reread the first few sections of this book, which I hadn't looked at in ages. They inspired the following short story:Wang's First Day on the JobWang is a Chinese construction worker who's just arrived in the US. He doesn't know a word of English, but he figures he'll get by. The important thing is that he knows construction work. His English-speaking cousin takes him to a building site and manages to get him hired by Wittgenstein Constructi [...]

    3. This is the first work by Wittgenstein I’ve ever read. I’ve been terrified of him for years, truth be told. I’ve read a biography by W.W. Bartley III (wouldn’t you love to be ‘the third’? I would stick the three I’s on the end of my name too, if I was, but unfortunately I’m only Trevor the Second…). The main memory I have of that book is of Wittgenstein waiting to be captured in WWI and him humming the second movement of Beethoven’s Seventh. That has always been one of my all [...]

    4. I couldn't possibly do Philosophical Investigations justice in a review. Even though I've read it several times, I don't understand more than a fraction of it. The unworthy thought does sometimes cross my mind that its author didn't understand it either, but you understand I'm just jealous because I'm not a Great Philosopher. I would so like to be one.Assuming you aren't an aspiring Great Philosopher, my advice is not to take this book too seriously it is very frustrating. Skim it quickly, then [...]

    5. This book is about the concept of grammar. Can a single word be a meaningful, grammatical statement? I have a toddler, and so I know that it can. 'Milky' means the same thing as 'bring me the milky' in our language game. So, how can this be? What about grammar? Well, Wittgenstein argues that there must be a grammar for the imperative 'milky' to be understood. Where is this grammar?There are rules and training that indicate what must be done when Seneca says "milky." For example, I go to the refr [...]

    6. This book is too complex to summarize, but here is a nutshell: If you want to know the meaning of a word, consider how the word is used. Words are used in a variety of “language games,” interactions among people, which display “family resemblances.” That is, there is no single model which shows the essence of how words are used, but rather there are many overlapping and differing language games, each of which is a different model.Enough summarizing. Now to what I am interested in, what I [...]

    7. o my crap, what a tortured soul Ludwig Wittgenstein was. this guy stared into the impenetrable pitch blackness that was the tangled midnight jungle of his own inner existence, sharpened his machete, and plunged in, hacking and flailing and lunging wildly. he wrestles chiefly with the concepts of language, meaning, understanding, and states of consciousness. part I consists of 693 short numbered sections (about 4 to a page). this was sent to the publisher but pulled back at the last second five y [...]

    8. Exasperating, but worth it.The syntax of the Investigations has a jaggedly Asperger’s feel to it. Too often Wittgenstein sounds like a malfunctioning android jabbering its core protocols to itself, pacing in frantic circles, waving its arms in a vexed “Philosophy is the sickness and I’m the cure” manner. The loathsome blend of pedantry and vagueness throughout Part 1 -- hectoring in tone, nebulous in definition -- can be maddening. (As a communicator, Wittgenstein often ranks with Kant o [...]

    9. نحن لا نتفلسف لنجد إجابات مريحة لكل شيء، ولكن نتفلسف لنعرف كيف ينبغي علينا أن نفكر في الأمورمن يدعي بأن الفلسفة لا تبحث إلا فيما نجهله فقط هو جاهل بالضرورة، فالفلسفة تبحث حتى في ما نحن متيقنين منه، أو نعتقد أننا كذلك! وليت شعري إن كان هناك شيء من هذا القبيل. وخير مثال هذا الكتا [...]

    10. This book was assembled posthumously, Wittgenstein having published very little in his lifetime. Although usually coupled with the Tractatus, it is actually more representative of his thought and method.The virtue of Wittgenstein may be that with him there is no hint of metaphysical conceit or self-deception, but rather a consistent treatment of reality as, in fact, various "language games" ("language" being understood broadly to include everything from the semiotic to the symbolic, the denotati [...]

    11. Čitati Vitgenštajna u okviru celokupne tradicije zapadne filozofije je kao da Odiseju počnete da čitate od poslednjih nekoliko poglavlja, preskočivši sve što se pre toga zbilo. Dakle potrebno je imati vrlo dobro predznanje, pogotovo o nekim pitanjima koja su pokrenuta još u Platonovim dijalozima, pa onda i o raskolu između idealista i realista, uopše o mnogo toga što dolazi pre. Tematika je obrađena in medias res, nikakav se uvod ne pravi, niti se objašnjava istorijat ideja i proble [...]

    12. As a philosopher, Wittgenstein isn't terribly systematic-- rather shocking for an "analytic" thinker. I would argue that he's an original, using analytic (thought experiments), continental (literary examples), pragmatic (everyday life as a litmus test), and Nietzschean (aphoristic style, attitude problem) elements. Hell, I'm almost loathe to call it philosophy at all. It's more like a gorgeous, dense, glittering puzzle box. I guarantee that when I read it again somewhere down the line, I'll get [...]

    13. To date the most overrated work of 20th century analytic thought (if one wishes to truly count the later Wittgenstein as an analytic). Written in a fragmentary styled not seen in the traditional philosophical corpus since Spinoza, Wittgenstein often leaves the reader guessing at what he could possibly be referencing. The work starts out quite strong as a critique of Russell and Moore, concerning their conceptions of language and its logic. But as the work progresses, many philosophers mistakenly [...]

    14. القراءة الثالثة بعد قراءة ترجمة عزمي إسلام وبعد شوية مناوشات مع النسخة الإنجليزية، ولو قلت إني فهمت فتجنشتاين أبقى كداب :))ترجمة بنّور أجود بمراحل من ترجمة عزمي، أظن إنها لا تقارن بترجمة عزمي من الأساس، أستفدت منها بشكل كبيروتعليقات بنور ومقدمته شيء جيد جدا الحقيقة

    15. After the publication of the Tractatus, Wittgenstein felt he had nothing more to contribute to philosophy. He spent the 1920s in a variety of jobs. He was a schoolteacher in a small Austrian village, a gardener, and an amateur architect. During this time, he still had some connection with the philosophical world, notably in his conversations with Frank Ramsey on the Tractatus that gradually led him to recognize that this work was flawed in a number of respects. In the late twenties, he also came [...]

    16. Wittgenstein: Apostle, soldier, school teacher, hermit, mathematician, architect, inheritor of the Chair of the Moral Sciences Club from Moore at Cambridge, cousin of F. von Hayek, scion of the wealthiest (Jewish according to the Nuremberg laws) industrialist family in Austria who renounced his fortune. W was one of the most intimidating characters in the English philosophy scene. Take a look at Wittgenstein's Poker to get just how impossible a character he was.W has influenced every significant [...]

    17. كيف رأى لودفيج فتجنشتاين فلسفة اللغة؟ida2at/how-did-ludwig-wittBefore readingAfter reading

    18. Here are some lines: 19. . . . And to imagine a language means to imagine a form of life. 40. Let us first discuss this point of the argument: that a word has no meaning if nothing corresponds to it. . . . 47. But what are the simple constituent parts of which reality is composed?--What are the simple constituent parts of a chair?--The bits of wood of which it is made? Or the molecules, or the atoms?--"Simple" means: not composite. And here the point is: in what sense 'composite'? It makes no se [...]

    19. One aspect of this book that makes it important for simply that contribution is the notion of "language games." If language produces reality, different languages produce different realities. In this book, German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein developed the related notion of "language games," islands of language, unique each to itself, not wholly translatable one into another. Each of us inhabits a particular language game, he claims, which channels how we see things and understand the world and [...]

    20. This is, of course, one of the great books of the 20th century, and it blew my head away when I first read it. However, I have since come to mistrust its conclusions. The central task of language is communication. The central question in linguistics is "How is it possible for one person to understand another?" It is actually possible for people from quite different societies to come to understand each other. How is this possible? I do not think Wittgenstein gives a satisfactory answer to this qu [...]

    21. «جنبش فکری ویتگنشتاین، چگونگی سازگاری مباحث گوناگون و اینکه چرا آنها اینگونه تنظیم شده اند، همه اینها در اینجا روشن تر از هر جای دیگری که من می دانم بحث شده اند. شناختی اساسی نسبت به فلسفه لازمه خواندن این کتاب است اما نه آنقدر که علاقمندان به ویتگنشتاین نتوانند از خواندن آن ب [...]

    22. Perhaps the most influential book of philosophy written in the 20th century. (It's only rival is likely Heidegger's Being and Time.) This is my third time reading this very technical book. Each time I read it two things happen: 1) The focus of the book seems more narrow. 2) The ramifications of the book seem more broad. Wittgenstein asks: How does language operate? His answer: Not according to a logical superstructure but according to discrete "games", rules, and patterns. What does a word mean? [...]

    23. When I read this years ago, I struggled with it. Tractatus had been so beautifully efficient and lucid (wrong, but beautiful nonetheless.) Then I dove into PI and floundered. On second reading I've had a lot more peripheral material to help me grasp the ideas. What I really wish I'd had was this:Commentary on Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations by Lois ShawverThis site not only lists the complete text, but also side-by-side commentary from Shawver. I don't generally like to read books li [...]

    24. Well, definitely awesome exposition, but I figured most of this out playing in the backyard when I was 12. Surely philosophy has something more to say than these largely self-evident truths? Anyone with half a brain will recognize and cherish Wittgenstein's exposition, but seriously, basic context-sensitive linguistics is something we've all considered intuitively.--- 2009-02-20.

    25. I won't here enumerate the book's content; brief summaries of its main points are everywhere. What makes it so excellent is in the smaller details here and there, and their implications going forwards. I read and reviewed this some time ago, but having sat on it for a while, and read some other books tangent to it, I felt compelled to come back and rewrite this.Many people like to say that the book is poorly structured, dense and elusive. Maybe, but all to a purpose. Wittgenstein understood the [...]

    26. Philosophical Investigations - if you want to understand Wittgenstein, begin with the Blue and Brown Books. They prepared Philosophical Investigations. You may think that Wittgenstein is always repeating himself. As a matter of fact, Wittgenstein himself, confessed that he needed to repeat, to copy his own wrintings again. But this shows his way of thinking, turning arround a problem, a concept or any philosophical idea. He wanted to see through the language, the deep grammar. This is where he u [...]

    27. This is a hard book to evaluate. At times, I felt that Wiggentstein was the sole beacon of lucidity in a haze of philosophical muddlement. But at others, I couldn't help but think that the Philosophical Tribulations of a certain "Louis Witteringswine" was rather way too good of a parody.All things considered, I found the first 100 or so paragraphs to be the most informative (not incidentally, they constitute what is probably the most accessible section of the text). Elsewhere, Wittgenstein's app [...]

    28. I rated this three stars at first because I wanted to look smart, but now, a few days later, I have to be honest: this was boring even when read in the context of a reading group, with plenty of secondary material; if I had attempted it on my own, it would have been completely impenetrable. I'm sure it's really brilliant and I'm just missing the point, but Wittgenstein's idea of what philosophy should look like holds no real appeal for me. Of course, I have no intention of letting this interfere [...]

    29. The only truly great work of philosophy. This is not a mere book, it is an instruction manual for how to make sense. If one's philosophical reasoning is not guided by the ideas contained within this book, one is simply poking around in the dark. Wittgenstein's ideas are at the core of any philosophy that's worth its salt, and thus this book is perhaps the most important piece of intellectual work in human history.

    30. To have the temerity to think I could say something intelligent about this book would be pure hubris. It's at the bottom of the most profound ideas of the last century. I read it 40 years ago and thought it might be good to review. It was.

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